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PERGAN GmbH
Schlavenhorst 71 • D-46395 Bocholt
Tel.: +49 (0) 2871 / 99020 • Email: info@pergan.com

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Applications

Polymerization

Polyethylene-LD (LDPE)

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, as single initiator or combination of initiators, for the production of LDPE.

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Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is produced by polymerization of ethylene gas. The technically most important method for the production of LDPE is the high-pressure process in a tubular reactor or in an autoclave. In high-pressure process, ethylene gas is radically polymerized by traces of oxygen or organic peroxides as radical initiator at pressures 1500-3800 bar and at 100 to 200 ° C.

Organic peroxides, like Dialkyl peroxides, Diacyl peroxides, Peroxydicarbonates, Peroxyketales and aromatic or non-aromatic Peresters, are used.

 

More informationen about Polyethylen-LD (LDPE):

Polyethylene is produced through a chain polymerization of ethylene (CH2 = CH2). LDPE is a thermoplastic polymer with the simplified structural formula [- C H2 - C H 2 -]. Polyethylene belongs to the group of polyolefins and is partially crystalline and non-polar. It is the standard plastic worldwide by far and is used primarily for packaging. All types of polyethylene are characterized by high chemical resistance, good electrical insulation properties and good sliding properties; however, the mechanical properties are only moderately (except PE-UHMW).

Polypropylene (CR-PP)

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides for the degradation of Polypropylene.

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Contrary to the polymers like LDPE, PVC or PS, the polymerisation of PP is not a free-radical induced reaction, i. e. a reaction which is started by initiators like organic peroxides. Utilization of stereospecific catalysts, like Ziegler-Natta catalysts or Metallocenes leads to polymerisates with a well-ordered spatial chain configuration.

But during processing of high molecular weighted PP organic peroxides are often utilized. Because degradation of the polymer chains by peroxides improves the flow properties of the PP at its melting range. Due to a selective chain degradation one achieves a narrower molar mass distribution, a slightly lower molar mass and a lower melting temperature. This behavior is characterized by the Melt Flow Index (MFI). This is the amount of PP, which flows out from a nozzle with certain dimensions during a period of 10 min. at a given temperature and load (e. g. MFI 190 / 2.16 means: MFI at 190° C and a load of 2.16 kg).

For degradation of  PP Dialkyl peroxides are used.

 

More information about Polypropylen (PP):

Polypropylene (PP) is a high-quality thermoplastic polymer. The industrial production had started in 1957. During the last several years PP has become a polymer of more and more out-standing importance. The demand and therefore the increase of PP production capacity are much higher compared with the other polymers.

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, as single initiator or combination of initiators, for the production of PVC.

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Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) by use of organic peroxides, azo-initiators or persulfates. Three different production processes are used: Suspension polymerization – with organic peroxides or azo-initiators, Bulk polymerization – with organic peroxides, Emulsion polymerization

For the suspension and bulk polymerization organic peroxides are utilized exclusively, like Diacyl peroxides, Peroxydicarbonates and Peresters. For the emulsion polymerization water soluble organic peroxides like Hydroperoxides and Ketonperoxides are used.

 

More information about polyvinyl chloride (PVC):

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is an amorphous thermoplastic polymer. PVC had been discovered in 1835, the industrial production had been started in 1928. With respect to production capacity PVC is at present one of the most important thermoplastics. The flammability is very low, PVC doesn´t burn outside a flame. PVC is characterized by a remarkable resistance, a gas impermeability and a good resistance to light and weathering. Applications for PVC are pipes, electric cablecoatings, window frames, signs, clothing, furniture, healthcare (blood bag), flooring and vinyl records.

Polystyrene (PS/EPS)

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, as single initiator or combination of initiators, for the production of PS/EPS.

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Polystyrene is produced by polymerization of styrene by use of organic peroxides or heat (only bulk polymerization). Three different production processes are used: Suspension polymerization – with organic peroxides, Bulk polymerization – with organic peroxides or heat, Emulsion polymerization – with organic peroxides

For the three different productions processes organic peroxides are utilized, like Dialkyl peroxides, Diacyl peroxides, Peroxydicarbonates, Peroxyketales, Hydroperoxides and aromatic or non-aromatic Peresters.

Expanded Polystyrol (EPS) can be produced by the suspension as well as by the bulk process. In case of suspension polymerisation the blowing agent (e. g. Pentane) can be added during polymerisation reaction. In case of bulk process the blowing agent has to be added after the polymerisation reaction by a second manufacturing process, utilizing an extruder.


Flame resistance of polymers which are utilized for construction and electrical industry is a necessary requirement. Polymers with flame retardants are Expanded PS, Shock-Proofed PS and copolymers of PS. A flame retardant consists of two compounds, the real flame retardant (e. g. Hexabromo-cyclododecane) and a compound which decomposes in free-radicals. Mainly Dicumyl peroxide or 2.3-Dimethyl-2.3-diphenylbutane is utilized.

 

More information about Polystyrene (PS):

Polystyrene (PS) had been discovered in 1839, the industrial production had been started in 1931. With respect to production capacity PS and its copolymers ranks at fourth position (after LDPE, PP and PVC). PS is crystal-clear, tough and brittle. It is characterized by a brilliant surface gloss and out-standing dielectric properties, but also by a tendency of stress crack formation and a low heat, weathering and solvent resistance. These negative properties can be eliminated by Copolymerization with other Monomers (like Butadiene (CH2=CH-CH=CH2), Acrylonitrile (CH2=CH-CN). Applications of PS are production of cases, packaging and foams for insulation applications.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, as single initiator or combination of initiators, for the production of PMMA.

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PMMA is produced by polymerization of methyl methacrylate by use of organic peroxides. Three different production processes are used: Suspension polymerization – with organic peroxides, Bulk polymerization – with organic peroxides, Emulsion polymerization. For the polymerization organic peroxides like Peroxycarbonates, Peroxyesters or Perketals as single initiator or in combination are used.

 

More information about Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA):

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, acrylic glass also) is a transparent, thermoplastic polymer. PMMA was developed 1928 nearly at the same time in Germany, the UK and Spain. From PMMA a variety of transparent and non-transparent objects, goods, components and semi-finished products are produced, for example, for automotive industry (lights, reflectors), sanitary industry (tubs), furniture industry, construction industry (floor coatings), advertising industry (signage), aerospace industry (frontpanels, covers) and medical technology (artificial lens).

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bulletin for "Polymerization of monomers".

Curing

Hand Lay-out

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Hand Lay-out application.

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Hand Lay-out is a cold curing application activated through accelerators. Hand lay-out means to put by hand glass fiber mats in an open mould, to soak them with the activated resin and to cure them with organic peroxides, like Dibenzoyle peroxide or Ketoneperoxide. A more automatic version is to spray a mixture of fiber, resin, hardener and accelerator on the mould. The resin, hardener and accelerator are dosed separately and mixed in the spray gun with the fibers. Big final parts can produced with this working process.

Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM)

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) application.

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Resin transfer moulding (RTM) is a cold curing application activated through accelerators. RTM is a method of fabricating high-tech composite structures. The RTM process is capable of consistently producing composite parts with high strength, complex geometries, tight dimensional tolerances, and part quality typically required of aerospace applications. RTM uses a closed mould commonly made of aluminum. A fiber layup is placed into the mould, the mould is closed, sealed, heated, and placed under vacuum. Heated resin is injected into the mould to impregnate the fiber layup. The mould is then held at a temperature sufficient to cure the resin by organic peroxides, like Dibenzoyle peroxide or Ketoneperoxide.

Polymer concrete and marble

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Polymer concrete and marble application.

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Polymer concrete is a cold curing application activated through accelerators. Polymer concretes are a type of concrete that use unsaturated polyester resin to replace lime-type cements as a binder. Polymer concrete is also composed of fillers that include silica, quartz, granite, limestone, and other high quality material. The filler must be of good quality, free of dust and other debris, and especially dry. Failure to fulfill these criteria can reduce the bond strength between the polymer binder and the fillers. Suitable organic peroxides are Dibenzoyle peroxide or Ketonperoxide.

Gelcoats

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Gelcoat application.

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Gelcoat is a cold curing application activated through accelerators. Gelcoat is a material used to provide a high-quality finish on the visible surface of a fibre-reinforced composite. The most common gelcoats are on basis of unsaturated polyester resins. Gelcoats are modified resins which are applied to moulds in the liquid state. They are cured by organic peroxides, only Ketoneperoxide to form crosslinked polymers and are subsequently backed with composite polymer matrices, often mixtures of polyester resin and fiberglass. The manufactured component, when sufficiently cured and removed from the mould, presents the gelcoated surface. This is usually pigmented to provide a coloured, glossy surface which improves the aesthetic appearance of the article. Many marine craft and aircraft are manufactured using composite materials with an outer layer of gelcoat, typically 0.5 mm to 0.8 mm thick. Gelcoats are designed to be durable, providing resistance to UV-light and hydrolysis.

Putties

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Putty application.

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Putties are a cold curing application activated through accelerators. Putties means repair of car bodies, artificial stone plates and floors. This is performed by utilizing preaccelerated putties and cured with Dibenzoylperoxide. Also the hardener is utilized in paste form.

Chemical anchors and mine bolts

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Chemical anchors and mine bolts application.

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Chemical anchoring is a cold curing application activated through accelerators. Chemical anchors are steel studs, bolts and anchorages which are bonded into a substrate using a polyester resin based adhesive system. The most common curing agent is Dibenzoylperoxide as a paste. Chemical anchors are ideally suited for high load applications, no load stress is imparted to the base material as with expansion type anchors and are therefore ideal for close to edge fixing, reduced center and group anchoring and use in concrete of unknown quality or low compressive strength.

Buttons

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Button application.

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Making Buttons with unsaturated polyester resin is a cold curing application activated through accelerators. Basis for the production of polyester buttons is unsaturated polyester resin cured with organic peroxides to cast rods or plates. Polyester buttons are produced by metal-cutting and can be dyed subsequently. For the curing reaction normally slowly hardening organic peroxides such as Methyl ethyl ketone or Cyclohexanoneperoxide are used. These peroxides provide a good initial hardness and stress-free curing.

Centrifugal casting

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Centrifugal casting application.

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Centrifugal casting is an application at elevated temperature. Cold curing and also hot curing systems can be applied. The activated resin (with or without filler) will be filled in cast moulds or is rotated in cylindrical forms. In a rotating mould (a hollow cylinder) a mixture of roving fibers and activated resin is dosed by use of a lance. Due to the rotation the mixture of fibers / resin is spreaded homogeneously on the inner surface of the mould. With this working process tubes, silos and tanks can be produced with an excellent inner and outer surface quality. For curing reaction organic peroxides such as Methyl ethyl ketone or Cyclohexanone peroxides are utilized. These peroxides provide a good initial hardness and stress-free curing.

Filament winding

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Filament winding application.

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Filament winding is an application at elevated temperature. Cold curing and also hot curing systems can be applied. On a cylindrical, rotating mould rovings are winded like a spiral. Either the rovings are soaked before winding or after they have been winded to the mould. Cylindrical and spherical hollow parts (tubes, silos or tanks) can be produced with this method. For curing reaction organic peroxides such as Dibenzoylperoxide, Cumenehydro-, Methyl ethyl ketone-, Methyl isobutyl ketone- or Cyclohexanone peroxides are utilized. These peroxides provide a good initial hardness and stress-free curing.

Continuous laminating

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Continuous laminating application.

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Continuous laminating is an application at elevated temperature. Cold curing and also hot curing systems can be applied. Continuous lamination is a highly automated process in which reinforcements and fillers are impregnated with resin and guided through a conveyor process of forming rolls to control thickness and resin content consistent with the desired end product. As the material on the conveyor is passed through a heating zone the resin is cured by organic peroxides (with or without accelerator) to form the composite panel. Panels and sheets manufactured in this process are used to produce truck trailer and sidewalls, skylights, building panels, and other construction industry applications. For curing reaction organic peroxides such as Acetylacetone-, Methyl ethyl ketone- or Methyl isobutyl ketone peroxides are utilized. These peroxides provide a good initial hardness and stress-free curing.

Cure-in-place-pipe (CIPP)

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Cure-in-place-pipe (CIPP) application.

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Cure-in-place-pipe (CIPP) is a hot curing application, i.e. the curing without addition of accelerator, and requires heat supply (> 80°C). CIPP is one of several trenchless rehabilitation methods used to repair existing pipelines. CIPP is a jointless, seamless, pipe-within-a-pipe with the capability to rehabilitate pipes ranging in diameter from 0.1–2.8 meter. A resin-saturated felt tube made of polyester, fibreglass cloth or a number of other materials suitable for resin impregnation, is inverted or pulled into a damaged pipe. The liner can be inverted using water or air pressure. The resin used is typically polyester and cured with organic peroxides at high temperature by hot steam or water in combination with UV light. In some cases (e.g. for small diameters) a cold curing system with Dibenzoyle peroxide an amine accelerators is also possible.

Pultrusion

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for Pultrusion application.

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Pultrusion is a hot curing application, i.e. the curing without addition of accelerator, and requires heat supply (> 80°C). A continuous method, where rovings are first pulled through a bath of peroxide activated resin and then pulled through a heated mould. With this method rods and hollow profiles of variable thickness can be produced. Organic peroxides like Peroxyketals, Peroxyesters or Peroxydicarbonates are used.

SMC/BMC

PERGAN offers a wide range of organic peroxides, accelerators and inhibitors for SMC/BMC application.

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Sheet moulding compounds (SMC) and Bulk moulding compounds (BMC) are both hot curing applications, i.e. the curing without addition of accelerator, and requires heat supply (> 80°C).

SMC is a ready to mould glass-fibre reinforced polyester material primarily used in compression moulding. SMC is both a process and reinforced composite material. This is manufactured by dispersing long strands of chopped fiber in a bath of organic peroxide activated resin (e.g. polyester resin). Processing by rolls will yield in long sheets of resin mats which are coiled afterwards and stored for thickening / ripening. The longer fibers in SMC result in better strength properties than standard bulk moulding compound (BMC) products. Typical applications include demanding electrical applications, corrosion resistant needs, structural components at low cost, automotive, and transit.

BMC is a ready to mould, glass-fiber reinforced polyester material primarily used in injection moulding and compression moulding. BMC is manufactured by mixing strands of chopped glass fibers in a mixer with organic peroxide activated polyester resin. After mixing the compound is stored for ripening. The glass fibers in BMC result in better strength properties than standard thermoplastic products. Typical applications include demanding electrical applications, corrosion resistant needs, appliance, automotive, and transit.

Organic peroxides like Dialkyl peroxides, Peroxyketals, Peroxyesters or Peroxydicarbonates are used.

Vinylester resin

We recommend the following products of our range for curing of Vinylester resins:

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Vinylester, is a resin produced by the esterification of an epoxy resin with an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid. It can be used as an alternative to polyester and epoxy materials in matrix or composite materials.

Don't try to transfer the rules valid for curing of unsaturated polyester resins to vinylester resins. All is opposite: Ketone peroxides, which yield a slow curing with polyester resins, will show a fast curing with Vinylester resins. Solvents acting as promoter in polyester resins, act as inhibitor when used in Vinylester resin curing. Besides one exception, only Cobalt / Amine mix accelerators are effective. Another characteristic of Vinylester resins will be that all mixtures with peroxides containing Hydrogene peroxide (H2O2) have a more or less foaming tendency. However, if the foaming stops within the potlife of the activated resin, this problem is of minor importance. Peroxide formulations, based on Cumene hydroperoxide, doesn`t show any foaming.

Acrylics

We recommend the following products of our range for curing of Acrylic resins:

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Acrylate resins are used in many application areas: building waterproofing, floor coatings, solid surface or artificial stone/marble for sinks and countertops, adhesives coatings. Materials made of acrylic resins are, once cured, permanently durable and resistant. They have a good appearance, good gloss and high resistance to weathering.

For organic peroxide curing at ambient temperature a special accelerator or even a combination of accelerators is used . Without the addition of an accelerator the curing of acrylic resins starts just above an activation temperature of 80°C.

Polymerisation of alkyde styrene mixtures

We recommend the following products of our range for polymerisation of alkyde styrene mixtures:

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Application as a solution in hydrocarbons for putties, primers, top and effect paints, paint binders. It is a peroxide grafting of styrene or vinyltoluene optionally on alkyd resins or unsaturated polyester resins to improve the properties.Organic peroxides like Dialkyl peroxides or Peroxyesters are used.

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bulletin for "Curing unsaturated polyester-,
vinylester- and acrylate resins".

Crosslinking

Crosslinked EPM/EPDM

We recommend the following products of our range for crosslinking of EPM/EPDM with organic peroxides:

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Ethylene-propylene copolymer (EPM) is a copolymer of ethylene and propylene, ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) is a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene and a diene component. EPM can only be crosslinked by organic peroxides. EPDM can, in addition to the sulfur crosslinking, also crosslinked by organic peroxides. Advantages are more enhanced temperature resistance, lower compression set and abetter aging behavior. Applications are hoses, seals, profiles, cables, shoe soles and conveyor belts.

Crosslinked EVA

We recommend the following products of our range for crosslinking of EVA with organic peroxides:

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Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is a class of copolymers. The crosslinking with organic peroxides is carried out in order to improve the elongation, the aging and the heat resistance. Applications are hot melt adhesives, films, electrical cables, solar panels, shoe soles and floor coverings.

Crosslinked Foamed Polyethylene

We recommend the following products of our range for crosslinking and foaming of Polyethylene with organic peroxides:

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Crosslinked polyethylene foam is produced by crosslinking of polyethylene in the presence of foaming agents, such as e.g. Azo initiators. Crosslinked PE foam has a fine, regular and closed cell structure with low density. The closed cell structure provides excellent heat and cold insulation properties. In addition, cross-linked PE foam does not absorb water. Applications are noise protection, thermal insulation, seat cushions, gym mats or floats (swimming aids).

Crosslinked HDPE

We recommend the following products of our range for crosslinking of HDPE with organic peroxides:

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Due to the high softening point of LDPE only stable organic peroxides, like Dialkyleperoxides, are used.

Crosslinked Polyethylene (PE-X) is produced by crosslinking of thermoplastic polyethylene (LDPE, LLDPE or HDPE) through organic peroxides. Due to the crosslinking the impact resistance, abrasion resistance, low-temperature and stress cracking resistance can significantly be increased. On the contrary the hardness and rigidity decreases. As PE-X does not melt it is more thermally resistant. With a higher crosslinking density the maximum shear modulus increases also. Crosslinking of PE is only applied to the finished or semi-finished product. Applications are rotationally sintered hollow bodies, underfloor heating pipes, medium and high voltage cable insulation or container linings.

Crosslinkend LDPE

We recommend the following products of our range for crosslinking of LDPE with organic peroxides:

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Due to the high softening point of LDPE only stable organic peroxides, like Dialkyleperoxides, are used.

Crosslinked Polyethylene (PE-X) is produced by crosslinking of thermoplastic polyethylene (LDPE, LLDPE or HDPE) through organic peroxides. Due to the crosslinking the impact resistance, abrasion resistance, low-temperature and stress cracking resistance can significantly be increased. On the contrary the hardness and rigidity decreases. As PE-X does not melt it is more thermally resistant. With a higher crosslinking density the maximum shear modulus increases also. Crosslinking of PE is only applied to the finished or semi-finished product. Applications are rotationally sintered hollow bodies, underfloor heating pipes, medium and high voltage cable insulation or container linings.

Crosslinked Silicone Rubber

We recommend the following products of our range for crosslinking of Silicone Rubber with organic peroxides:

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Silicones (poly (organo) siloxanes) is a group of synthetic polymers in which silicon atoms are linked via oxygen atoms. As silicone rubber is referred to the compositions of the poly (organo) siloxanes transferred into a rubber-elastic state. Silicone rubber differs in two types according to the required curing temperature: a cold- (RTV) and a hot-crosslinked (HTV) silicone rubber. Both types can, in addition to the silane or platinum crosslinking, be crosslinked with organic peroxides. Crosslinked silicone rubber has a good cold-/heat- and aging resistance and can be used for hoses, rollers, conveyor belts, cable sheathing, gaskets and for pharmaceutical and medical products. As crosslinkers we recommend our peroxide formulations based on silicone oil or silicone rubber.

NBR & SBR

We recommend the following products of our range for crosslinking of NBR & SBR with organic peroxides:

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Butadiene acrylonitrile rubber (NBR) is produced by copolymerization of acrylonitrile (ACN) and 1,3-butadiene. Materials based on this synthetic rubber are suitable because of their good technological properties for many applications. In particular, radial shaft seals, sealing elements for hydraulic and pneumatic systems as well as O-rings.

 

Styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) is produced by the copolymerization of 1,3-butadiene and styrene. SBR is now the most widely used synthetic rubber and finds its application in the production of tires (tread), gaskets and conveyor belts.

Cable insulation

We recommend the following products of our range for "Cable insulation":

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Cable insulation from peroxide cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) are used in 1-380 kV range. Important after crosslinking are good dielectric properties and dimensional stability at higher temperatures. Mostly LDPE is crosslinked with Dialkylperoxides.

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bulletin for "Crosslinking of rubbers and polyolefines"